Anatomy Is The Study Of

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Anatomy Is The Study Of

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Histology is vital for the understanding and advancement of medicine, veterinary medicine, biology, and other aspects of life science. Teaching : Histology slides are used in teaching labs to help students who are learning about the microstructures of biological tissues.

Diagnosis : Tissue samples, or biopsies, are taken from patients and sent to the lab for analysis by a histologist.

Forensic investigations : The microscopic study of biological tissues can help explain why, for example, somebody unexpectedly died.

Autopsies : As in forensic investigations, biological tissues from deceased people and animals can be analyzed, so that investigators may better understand the causes of death.

Archeology : Biological samples from archeological sites can provide useful data about what was going on in history or ancient history.

Histotechnicians, also known as histology technicians, histology technologists, biomedical scientists, medical scientists, or medical laboratory technicians, work in histology laboratories.

These specialists use special skills to process samples of biological tissues that may come from patients, from suspects if it is a forensic lab, or from corpses.

Using a series of techniques, they prepare tiny slices of tissue, known as sections. They mount the slices on slides and add histology stains.

The slides are then examined by a histopathologist, or pathologist, for analysis. The skills of a histologist must be meticulous and precise to deliver top-quality samples for examination under a microscope by histopathologist.

A pathologist is a medical doctor who has graduated from medical school and then goes on to specialize in pathology through their residency. Residency programs are required for all specialties, and for pathology, the training is an additional four years.

They examine cells and tissues and interpret what they see, so that they or others can use the data to decide on treatment for an illness, determine how somebody was injured or died, and so on.

Histopathology is a sub-discipline of pathology. It is the microscopic study of disease tissues and cells. Most health-care related studies need training in gross anatomy and histology.

Paramedics, physical therapists, occupational therapists, medical doctors, orthotists and prosthetists, and biological scientists all need a knowledge of anatomy.

The National Institutes of Health offer a range of resources about the different parts of the body. Anatomy: A brief introduction. Gross anatomy Microscopic anatomy Histopathology Studying anatomy Anatomy is the identification and description of the structures of living things.

Gross anatomy. Share on Pinterest Knowing about anatomy is key to understanding healthcare. Microscopic anatomy. Share on Pinterest On a microscopic level, anatomy looks at cell structure and function.

Studying anatomy. They face forwards in predators and sideways in ducks. The feathers are outgrowths of the epidermis and are found in localized bands from where they fan out over the skin.

Large flight feathers are found on the wings and tail, contour feathers cover the bird's surface and fine down occurs on young birds and under the contour feathers of water birds.

The only cutaneous gland is the single uropygial gland near the base of the tail. This produces an oily secretion that waterproofs the feathers when the bird preens.

There are scales on the legs, feet and claws on the tips of the toes. Mammals are a diverse class of animals, mostly terrestrial but some are aquatic and others have evolved flapping or gliding flight.

They mostly have four limbs but some aquatic mammals have no limbs or limbs modified into fins and the forelimbs of bats are modified into wings.

The legs of most mammals are situated below the trunk, which is held well clear of the ground. The bones of mammals are well ossified and their teeth, which are usually differentiated, are coated in a layer of prismatic enamel.

The teeth are shed once milk teeth during the animal's lifetime or not at all, as is the case in cetaceans. Mammals have three bones in the middle ear and a cochlea in the inner ear.

They are clothed in hair and their skin contains glands which secrete sweat. Some of these glands are specialized as mammary glands , producing milk to feed the young.

Mammals breathe with lungs and have a muscular diaphragm separating the thorax from the abdomen which helps them draw air into the lungs.

The mammalian heart has four chambers and oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are kept entirely separate.

Nitrogenous waste is excreted primarily as urea. Mammals are amniotes , and most are viviparous , giving birth to live young. The exception to this are the egg-laying monotremes , the platypus and the echidnas of Australia.

Most other mammals have a placenta through which the developing foetus obtains nourishment, but in marsupials , the foetal stage is very short and the immature young is born and finds its way to its mother's pouch where it latches on to a nipple and completes its development.

Humans have the overall body plan of a mammal. Humans have a head , neck , trunk which includes the thorax and abdomen , two arms and hands , and two legs and feet.

Generally, students of certain biological sciences , paramedics , prosthetists and orthotists, physiotherapists , occupational therapists , nurses , podiatrists , and medical students learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures and tutorials and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy through practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers.

The study of microscopic anatomy or histology can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations or slides under a microscope.

Human anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school.

Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically; that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems.

Academic anatomists are usually employed by universities, medical schools or teaching hospitals. They are often involved in teaching anatomy, and research into certain systems, organs, tissues or cells.

Invertebrates constitute a vast array of living organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular eukaryotes such as Paramecium to such complex multicellular animals as the octopus , lobster and dragonfly.

By definition, none of these creatures has a backbone. The cells of single-cell protozoans have the same basic structure as those of multicellular animals but some parts are specialized into the equivalent of tissues and organs.

Locomotion is often provided by cilia or flagella or may proceed via the advance of pseudopodia , food may be gathered by phagocytosis , energy needs may be supplied by photosynthesis and the cell may be supported by an endoskeleton or an exoskeleton.

Some protozoans can form multicellular colonies. Metazoans are multicellular organism, different groups of cells of which have separate functions.

The most basic types of metazoan tissues are epithelium and connective tissue, both of which are present in nearly all invertebrates.

The outer surface of the epidermis is normally formed of epithelial cells and secretes an extracellular matrix which provides support to the organism.

An endoskeleton derived from the mesoderm is present in echinoderms , sponges and some cephalopods. Exoskeletons are derived from the epidermis and is composed of chitin in arthropods insects, spiders, ticks, shrimps, crabs, lobsters.

Calcium carbonate constitutes the shells of molluscs , brachiopods and some tube-building polychaete worms and silica forms the exoskeleton of the microscopic diatoms and radiolaria.

The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There may also be protrusions such as microvilli , cilia, bristles, spines and tubercles.

Marcello Malpighi , the father of microscopical anatomy, discovered that plants had tubules similar to those he saw in insects like the silk worm.

He observed that when a ring-like portion of bark was removed on a trunk a swelling occurred in the tissues above the ring, and he unmistakably interpreted this as growth stimulated by food coming down from the leaves, and being captured above the ring.

Arthropods comprise the largest phylum in the animal kingdom with over a million known invertebrate species. Insects possess segmented bodies supported by a hard-jointed outer covering, the exoskeleton , made mostly of chitin.

The segments of the body are organized into three distinct parts, a head, a thorax and an abdomen. The thorax has three pairs of segmented legs , one pair each for the three segments that compose the thorax and one or two pairs of wings.

The abdomen is composed of eleven segments, some of which may be fused and houses the digestive , respiratory , excretory and reproductive systems.

Spiders a class of arachnids have four pairs of legs; a body of two segments—a cephalothorax and an abdomen. Spiders have no wings and no antennae.

They have mouthparts called chelicerae which are often connected to venom glands as most spiders are venomous. They have a second pair of appendages called pedipalps attached to the cephalothorax.

These have similar segmentation to the legs and function as taste and smell organs. At the end of each male pedipalp is a spoon-shaped cymbium that acts to support the copulatory organ.

In BCE, the Edwin Smith Papyrus , an Ancient Egyptian medical text , described the heart , its vessels, liver , spleen , kidneys , hypothalamus , uterus and bladder , and showed the blood vessels diverging from the heart.

The Ebers Papyrus c. Ancient Greek anatomy and physiology underwent great changes and advances throughout the early medieval world.

Over time, this medical practice expanded by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body were made, which have contributed towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and the nervous system.

The Hellenistic Egyptian city of Alexandria was the stepping-stone for Greek anatomy and physiology. Alexandria not only housed the biggest library for medical records and books of the liberal arts in the world during the time of the Greeks, but was also home to many medical practitioners and philosophers.

Great patronage of the arts and sciences from the Ptolemy rulers helped raise Alexandria up, further rivalling the cultural and scientific achievements of other Greek states.

Some of the most striking advances in early anatomy and physiology took place in Hellenistic Alexandria. These two physicians helped pioneer human dissection for medical research.

They also conducted vivisections on the cadavers of condemned criminals, which was considered taboo until the Renaissance—Herophilus was recognized as the first person to perform systematic dissections.

Herophilus's knowledge of the human body has provided vital input towards understanding the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system, and characterizing the course of disease.

He was able to distinguish the sensory and the motor nerves in the human body and believed that air entered the lungs and heart, which was then carried throughout the body.

His distinction between the arteries and veins—the arteries carrying the air through the body, while the veins carried the blood from the heart was a great anatomical discovery.

Erasistratus was also responsible for naming and describing the function of the epiglottis and the valves of the heart, including the tricuspid.

Great feats were made during the third century in both the digestive and reproductive systems. Herophilus was able to discover and describe not only the salivary glands, but the small intestine and liver.

He recognized that spermatozoa were produced by the testes and was the first to identify the prostate gland. The anatomy of the muscles and skeleton is described in the Hippocratic Corpus , an Ancient Greek medical work written by unknown authors.

Praxagoras identified the difference between arteries and veins. Also in the 4th century BCE, Herophilos and Erasistratus produced more accurate anatomical descriptions based on vivisection of criminals in Alexandria during the Ptolemaic dynasty.

In the 2nd century, Galen of Pergamum , an anatomist , clinician , writer and philosopher , [67] wrote the final and highly influential anatomy treatise of ancient times.

Anatomy developed little from classical times until the sixteenth century; as the historian Marie Boas writes, "Progress in anatomy before the sixteenth century is as mysteriously slow as its development after is startlingly rapid".

It describes the body in the order followed in Mondino's dissections, starting with the abdomen, then the thorax, then the head and limbs. It was the standard anatomy textbook for the next century.

Leonardo da Vinci — was trained in anatomy by Andrea del Verrocchio. Andreas Vesalius — Latinized from Andries van Wezel , professor of anatomy at the University of Padua , is considered the founder of modern human anatomy.

In England, anatomy was the subject of the first public lectures given in any science; these were given by the Company of Barbers and Surgeons in the 16th century, joined in by the Lumleian lectures in surgery at the Royal College of Physicians.

In the United States, medical schools began to be set up towards the end of the 18th century. Classes in anatomy needed a continual stream of cadavers for dissection and these were difficult to obtain.

Philadelphia, Baltimore and New York were all renowned for body snatching activity as criminals raided graveyards at night, removing newly buried corpses from their coffins.

The practice was halted in Britain by the Anatomy Act of , [81] [82] while in the United States, similar legislation was enacted after the physician William S.

Forbes of Jefferson Medical College was found guilty in of "complicity with resurrectionists in the despoliation of graves in Lebanon Cemetery".

He was responsible for setting up the system of three years of "pre-clinical" academic teaching in the sciences underlying medicine, including especially anatomy.

This system lasted until the reform of medical training in and As well as teaching, he collected many vertebrate skeletons for his museum of comparative anatomy , published over 70 research papers, and became famous for his public dissection of the Tay Whale.

He noticed that the frequently fatal fever occurred more often in mothers examined by medical students than by midwives. The students went from the dissecting room to the hospital ward and examined women in childbirth.

Semmelweis showed that when the trainees washed their hands in chlorinated lime before each clinical examination, the incidence of puerperal fever among the mothers could be reduced dramatically.

Before the modern medical era, the main means for studying the internal structures of the body were dissection of the dead and inspection , palpation and auscultation of the living.

It was the advent of microscopy that opened up an understanding of the building blocks that constituted living tissues. Technical advances in the development of achromatic lenses increased the resolving power of the microscope and around , Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann identified that cells were the fundamental unit of organization of all living things.

Study of small structures involved passing light through them and the microtome was invented to provide sufficiently thin slices of tissue to examine.

Staining techniques using artificial dyes were established to help distinguish between different types of tissue.

Advances in the fields of histology and cytology began in the late 19th century [89] along with advances in surgical techniques allowing for the painless and safe removal of biopsy specimens.

The invention of the electron microscope brought a great advance in resolution power and allowed research into the ultrastructure of cells and the organelles and other structures within them.

About the same time, in the s, the use of X-ray diffraction for studying the crystal structures of proteins, nucleic acids and other biological molecules gave rise to a new field of molecular anatomy.

Equally important advances have occurred in non-invasive techniques for examining the interior structures of the body. X-rays can be passed through the body and used in medical radiography and fluoroscopy to differentiate interior structures that have varying degrees of opaqueness.

Magnetic resonance imaging , computed tomography , and ultrasound imaging have all enabled examination of internal structures in unprecedented detail to a degree far beyond the imagination of earlier generations.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the anatomy of plants, see Plant anatomy. For other uses, see Anatomy disambiguation.

The study of the structure of organisms and their parts. See also: Neuroanatomy. See also: Comparative anatomy. Main article: Fish anatomy. Main article: Amphibian anatomy.

Main article: Reptile anatomy. Main article: Bird anatomy. Main article: Mammal anatomy. Main articles: Arthropod , Insect morphology , and Spider anatomy.

Main article: History of anatomy. Further information: History of anatomy in the 19th century. Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 18 June Henry Gray.

Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 19 March Annals of Anatomy-Anatomischer Anzeiger. Everyman's Encyclopedia: Anatomy.

The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 8 July Journal of Crustacean Biology. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. Johns Hopkins Medicine. National Health Service.

Retrieved 29 April Saunders College Publishing. Invertebrate Zoology, 7th edition. Cengage Learning. Illustrated Medical Dictionary.

Elsevier Saunders. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology 7th ed. Blackwell Publishing. Epithelial Cells. Davidson College.

Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 25 June B; Whillis, J, eds. Grey's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied 28 ed.

Nervous System 4th ed. Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 13 July The Vertebrate Body. Functional anatomy of the vertebrates: an evolutionary perspective.

Harcourt College Publishers. National Center for Science Education. Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 27 June Modern Text Book of Zoology: Vertebrates.

Rastogi Publications. A Natural History of Amphibians. Princeton University Press. Medschools Online. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 2 July Orkin Insect zoo".

Mississippi State University. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 23 June The Insects: An Outline of Entomology 3 ed.

Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. San Francisco: Pearson. Harper Collins. The British Journal for the History of Science.

Anatomy and Cell Biology. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Retrieved 25 November The Encyclopedia of Britannica.

The Father of Anatomy". The Lancet. Cambridge University Press. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Medicine and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt. Brill NV. Antiqua Medicina — from Homer to Vesalius. University of Virginia. On the Natural Faculties.

Edinburgh, Introduction, page xxxiii. The Scientific Renaissance — Great Ideas in the History of Surgery. Courier Dover Publications.

Columbia University Press. A History of the Sciences. New York: Collier. Press release. University of Warwick.

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